Thyroid gland is an important endocrine observation, namely hormones for the regulation of metabolic processes, electrolytes, functions of the nervous and reproductive systems. However, the thyroid gland is susceptible to disease. Cases of thyroid disease are studied every year, which is explained by an unbalanced diet, a depressing natural environment, the influence of hereditary factors, and the lack of effective system for protecting iodine deficiency states. Not all thyroid diseases are subject to conservative therapy. The method of indication is partial or radical removal of the thyroid gland.
Thyroidectomy refers to an operation to remove the thyroid gland. For example, surgery involves removing the lymph nodes in the trachea. Combined surgery makes cancer treatment effective and has a low risk of recurrence.
Doctor makes an incision in the front of the neck and pinches and ties the blood vessels. The thyroid gland - in whole or in part - is cut off from other tissues. To prevent bleeding, special clamps are used, which are responsible for the process of closing the ends of the vessels. The incision is sutured, the edges of the skin are fastened. It is often necessary to install drainage tubes to prevent fluid accumulation.
With complete removal of the thyroid gland, in the case of cancer, the lymph nodes in the area of the operation can also be removed, which helps to determine the spread of the cancer. In some cases, doctor removes the thyroid gland using endoscopic surgery.
Diagnosis before thyroidectomy includes the following examinations:
study of level of hormones in the body;
ultrasound examination of the gland and lymph nodes to detect pathologies
Thyroidectomy is recommended in situations where other methods of treatment have failed, or in malignant tumors. Patients with asymptomatic nodules are not recommended to undergo surgical intervention, since it is enough for them to limit themselves to dynamic observation. Thyroidectomy is performed in patients with progressive pathology or suspicions of malignant transformations.
The scope of the planned surgery depends on the nature of the pathology affecting the thyroid gland.
- Total thyroidectomy to remove the entire thyroid gland;
- Subtotal thyroidectomy assumes that almost all of the gland is excised, leaving small areas and zones of the parathyroid glands;
- Hemithyroidectomy to remove half of the organ with an isthmus with limited nodes of one of the lobes.
Diffuse toxic goiter
Solitary thyroid nodule
Large thyroid cyst, etc.
Patient stays in hospital under for 1-2 days. If no complications are observed, doctors remove drainage tube and let patient go home. Patient will need 10-12 days to fully recover.
After surgery, patient must regularly visit an endocrinologist. This is important because removal of the thyroid gland involves lifelong hormone replacement therapy. If the cause of the operation was a malignant tumor, patient is prescribed radioactive iodine therapy.